Fenqitho

ܡܚܰܘܝܳܢܳܐ ܕܒܳܥܘ̈ܳܬ̣ܳܐ

ܦܢܩܝ̈ܬܐ ܕܨܠܘ̈ܬܐ ܥܕ̈ܬܢܝܬܐ ܕܠܝܠܝ ܐܝܡܡ ܐܝܟ ܛܟܣܐ ܕܥܕܬܐ ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܬܐ ܕܣܘܪ̈ܝܝܐ ܬܪܝܨܬ ܫܘܒܚܐ فناقيث كنيسة أنطاكية للسريان الارثوذكس بحسب الطقس السرياني الشرقي، إعداد وتنضيد الأب الربان الدكتور برنابا عيسى الشماني هنا

ܦܢܩܝ̈ܬܐ ܕܨܠܘ̈ܬܐ ܥܕ̈ܬܢܝܬܐ ܕܠܝܠܝ ܐܝܡܡ ܐܝܟ ܛܟܣܐ ܕܥܕܬܐ ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܬܐ ܕܣܘܪ̈ܝܝܐ فناقيث السريان الكاثوليك (7 أجزاء)، إعداد قليميس يوسف داود، الناشر البطريرك جرجس شلحت، مطبعة الآباء الدومينكان، الموصل 1886-1896.

يمكن تنزيل النص السرياني للأجزاء السبعة هنا وقراءة ترجمتها إلى العربية للأب الدكتور بهنام سوني على صفحتنا:

الجزء الأول: الفنقيث العام، 1886، ܦܠܓܘܬܐ ܓܘܢܝܬܐ܆ ترجمته إلى العربية هنا.

الجزء الثاني: من تشرين الثاني إلى نهاية كانون الأول (من تقديس الكنيسة إلى الأحد الأول بعد عيد الميلاد)، 1886، ܦܠܓܘܬܐ ܕܝܠܢܝܬܐ ܩܕܡܝܬܐ ܕܡܫܪܝܐ ܡܢ ܬܫܪܝܢ ܐܚܪܝ ܘܡܫܡܠܝܐ ܒܟܢܘܢ ܩܕܝܡ، ترجمته إلى العربية هنا.

الجزء الثالث: من كانون الثاني إلى نهاية شباط (من الأحد بعد الختانة إلى أحد الموتى)، 1889، ܦܠܓܘܬܐ ܕܬܪܬܝܢ ܕܝܠܢܝܬܐ ܕܡܫܪܝܐ ܡܢ ܪܝܫܗ ܕܟܢܘܢ ܐܚܪܝ ܘܡܫܠܡܐ ܒܫܒܛ، ترجمته إلى العربية هنا.

الجزء الرابع: شهر آذار (الصوم الأربعيني)، 1891، ܦܠܓܘܬܐ ܕܬܠܬ ܕܝܠܢܝܬܐ ܕܡܫܬܡܠܝܐ ܒܟܠܗ ܨܘܡܐ ܪܒܐ ܕܐܪܒܥܝܢ ܘܒܐܕܪ ܝܪܚܐ، ترجمته إلى العربية هنا.

الجزء الخامس: الأسبوع العظيم أي الآلام المخلصية وأسبوع البياض، 1892، ܦܠܓܘܬܐ ܕܐܪܒܥ ܕܠܢܝܬܐ ܕܡܫܬܡܠܝܐ ܒܫܒܬܐ ܪܒܬܐ ܕܚܫܐ ܦܪܘܩܝܐ ܘܒܫܒܬܐ ܕܚܘܪ̈ܐ، ترجمته إلى العربية هنا.

الجزء السادس: من الأحد الثاني بعد القيامة إلى الأحد السابع بعد العنصرة (من شهر نيسان إلى نهاية شهر تموز) 1895، ܦܠܓܘܬܐ ܕܚܡܫ ܕܝܠܢܝܬܐ ܕܡܫܪܝܐ ܡܢ ܚܕ ܒܫܒܐ ܕܬܪܝܢ ܕܒܬܪ ܩܝܡܬܐ ܘܡܫܠܡܐ ܒܚܕ ܒܫܒܐ ܕ ܙ ܒܬܪ ܦܢܛܩܘܣܛܝ ܘܡܢ ܝܪܚ ܢܝܣܢ ܥܕܡܐ ܠܫܘܠܡ ܝܪܚ ܬܡܘܙ، ترجمته إلى العربية هنا.

الجزء السابع: من الأحد الثامن بعد العنصرة إلى تقديس الكنيسة (من بداية شهر آب إلى نهاية تشرين الأول) 1896، ܦܠܓܘܬܐ ܫܬܝܬܝܬܐ ܕܝܠܢܝܬܐ ܕܡܫܪܝܐ ܡܢ ܚܕ ܒܫܒܐ ܕܬܡܢܝܐ ܕܒܬܪ ܦܢܛܩܘܣܛܝ ܥܕܡܐ ܠܩܘܕܫ ܥܕܬܐ ܘܡܢ ܪܝܫ ܐܒ ܝܪܚܐ ܥܕܡܐ ܠܫܘܠܡ ܬܫܪܝܢ ܩܕܝܡ، ترجمته إلى العربية هنا.

ملاحظة: إن الخط السرياني الذي يستخدمه الأب د. بهنام سوني في كتابة النصوص السريانية على الكمبيوتر لا يظهر بشكل صحيح على متصفح الإنترنت. حدّثنا بعض العناوين والروبريكات إلى الخط السرياني الموافق لصفحة الإنترنت وبقيت أجزاء كثيرة غير معدّلة تظهر بأحرف عربية غير مفهومة، على القارئ تجاوزها عند القراءة إلى الترجمة التي تتبعها. فاقتضى التنويه.

الفناقيث بالسريانية (Word)

تنبيه: نسخة تجريبية تحتاج نصوصها إلى المراجعة والتدقيق

ܡܢ ܚܕ ܒܫܒܐ ܕܩܘܕܫ ܥܕܬܐ ܥܕܡܐ ܠܚܕ ܒܫܒܐ ܕܥܢܝ̈ܕܐ

ܨܘܡܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ ܕܐܪܒܥܝܢ

ܚܫܐ ܦܪܘܩܝܐ

ܡܢ ܚܕ ܒܫܒܐ ܕܩܘܕܫ ܥܕܬܐ ܥܕܡܐ ܠܚܕ ܒܫܒܐ ܕܥܢܝ̈ܕܐܒܝܕ ܥܝܣܐ ܡܘܣܐ ܕܡܝܪ – ܐܘܣܬܪܝܐ – ܦܝܢܢܐ

ܨܘܡܐ ܩܕܝܫܐ ܕܐܪܒܥܝܢܒܝܕ ܥܝܣܐ ܡܘܣܐ ܕܡܝܪ – ܐܘܣܬܪܝܐ – ܦܝܢܢܐ

ܡܢ ܚܕ ܒܫܒܐ ܕܩܝܡܬܐ ܥܕܡܐ ܠܫܘܠܡ ܟܪܘܟܝܐ ܕܫܢܬܒܝܕ ܥܝܣܐ ܡܘܣܐ ܕܡܝܪ – ܐܘܣܬܪܝܐ – ܦܝܢܢܐ

Service Books for Sundays for the Whole Year

The services contained in these books extend from the Sunday of the Consecration of the Church, at the end of October or the beginning of November, until the Sunday immediately preceding the Nativity of our Lord. They comprise eight orders, followed by five or six more services for the Sundays immediately following the Epiphany; interposed between these two groupings are the prayers for the Sunday following the Nativity of our Lord and two other Sundays, devoted to the commemoration of priests and the dead. All of these services are contained in one volume. The second volume contains the services of the twenty-four Sundays from the Sunday of the Resurrection to the Sunday of the Festival of the Cross. These are preceded by six services for the Week of White[1] immediately following Easter Sunday, in commemoration of the Resurrection. The third volume contains eight general services in commemoration of the works of our Lord, in praise of the Holy Virgin and the saints and in commemoration of the dead. These services are recited on the Sundays following the Festival of the Cross up to the Sunday of the Consecration of the Church.

These service books were methodically compiled and arranged by St. Jacob of Edessa (d. 708). According to many old manuscripts, written on parchment in the Estrangelo script and dating back to the period from the ninth century to the thirteenth, Jacob of Edessa wrote eight orders for the Sundays following the Resurrection; their cycle was to be repeated three times. In the fifteenth century, however, they were supplemented by sixteen more services, selected from the collection of chorals and hymns.

A single service consists of the prayers of the vespers, the nocturnes, the morning prayer and the prayer at the third hour. The nocturnal prayer is celebrated at two times, during which hymns selected from St. Ephraim and others are chanted and sometimes interspersed with some supplicatory hymns by Rabula, metropolitan of Edessa.

Traditionally, the Syrians had two distinct orders, or rites: the Western rite, which was universal in the dioceses under the direct jurisdiction of the Patriarchal See; and the Eastern rite, which was used by the dioceses under the jurisdiction of the Maphrianate See of Takrit. The first was compiled according to the traditions of Antioch, Edessa, the famous Monaster} 7 of Qenneshrin and Melitene; the second, according to the tradition of Seleucia-Ctesiphon and Takrit. The Western order is characterized by brevity and by prose songs, called the “Greek Canons,” used at every Sunday and festival and chanted according to eight melodies. They were written by Jacob of Edessa, Andrew, bishop of Crete (d. 700), Cosmas and John of Damascus (d. 750). The latter three are Greeks whose hymns were translated by the Syrians into their language because, according to Lazarus Bar Sobto, bishop of Baghdad, as quoted by Bar Hebraeus in his Ethikon (part 5, chapter 4, p. 66), “they were confined to general description of the acts of Christ our Lord and avoided the theological arguments among the Christian sects.” MS. 149 of Za’faran mentions that this translation was done in Edessa and was named for that city. To this translation some of our doctors added hymns similar to those composed by former authors; which were called the “Syrian Canons,” among which are the eight traditional canons and others written in commemoration of St. Severus.

The Eastern rite, which is universally used in Iraq, is marked by its lengthiness, the use of a great number of Psalms, the madroshos and the prose hymns of St. Severus, which are chanted particularly at the festivals of the Nativity of our Lord and the Resurrection. According to Jacob of Bartelli,[2] the service book of this rite was commonly known as the “Book of Hudhro,”[3] into which the monk David Bar Paul inserted ma‘nithos around 780. In a commentary note at the beginning of his letters, Bar Paul states, “when David and his disciple Zacharias returned to Monastery of Khanushia from the land of the West (of the Euphrates), he carried with him one hundred and seventy church hymns, composed by Mar Severus, which were unknown in the lands of the East. He also introduced to these lands different canons and collections, to be chanted daily at the close of the nocturnal service. He also added a psalm and the Lord’s Prayer to be recited in the morning, noon and night, after ‘Holy thou art God.’” These prayers were introduced in the year 1090 (of the Greek calendar, which is A.D. 780) and after.

It is our assumption that the compilation of Eastern rites, whose authors we do not know, began in the early part of the seventh century and continued to the middle of the twelfth century. Many authors apparently contributed to its composition until it assumed its present form. However, we are informed about those who established and organized it. They are:

  1. Malphono Sabroy, the great-grandfather of David Bar Paul (c. 630) and his two sons, Ram Yeshu’ and Gabriel, who wrote the Basilica[4] (anthems) and the canticles for both choirs for Palm Sunday and the Passion Week. They also wrote a service book which had been used in the towns specifically, in order to undermine the conceitedness of the Nestorians, as Sabroy himself states in his letter to Bishop John on the diacritical points which occur in the Holy Scriptures.
  2. Denha III of Harran, Maphryono of the East (912-932). He was described in the commemoration of the Eastern fathers as the author of qolos (metrical hymns) and was well-versed in church music.
  3. Basilius IV Bar Qubad of Takrit (1046-1069), who was an author of qolos (metrical hymns) and church canons.[5]

Many copies of service books have survived. They were mostly written from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries in an elegant Estrangelo script, on vellum or paper. They are preserved in the libraries of London, Paris and Boston (see earlier note) as well as the churches of Diyarbakir, Anhil, ‘Urnus, Meddo and Basibrina in Tur ‘Abdin, the Za’faran Monastery, the Monastery of St. Mark’s in Jerusalem, Edessa and Mosul. Other manuscripts in the western script, written from the thirteenth century to the present, are preserved in the libraries of Berlin, Egypt, Diyarbakir, the Monastery of St. Matthew, St. Mark’s Monastery in Jerusalem, the churches of Mosul and Qaraqosh, Mardin, Aleppo, Damascus, Beirut, Hisn Kifa, Meddo, Basibrina, Homs, Ṣadad, our patriarchal library and other places. In 1911, we were granted the opportunity to look through most of these manuscripts in the monasteries and churches of Tur ‘Abdin. We have no information, though, of what was lost from these manuscripts during the last war and what remained.

The service book used in the winter season is followed by the order of the three day fasting of Nineveh. At one time this fast was observed for five days in the lands of the East, as has been mentioned in a copy at the library of the Church of the Virgin (al-Tahira) in Mosul, transcribed by the priest Joseph Khamis of Sinjar in 1269 and in the copy at St. Matthew’s Monastery, transcribed by Abu al-Faraj Ibn Mansur in 1241. These two copies also contain the orders for the commemoration of priests, the strangers and the dead, on the Fridays in the three weeks preceding Lent; these orders belong exclusively to the Eastern rite.

 

The Service Book of Principal Feasts and The Festivals of Saints

 

This volume comprises the principal feasts of the Nativity of our Lord, the Circumcision, the Baptism, the Presentation of our Lord in the Temple, Palm Sunday, the Resurrection, the Ascension, the Pentecost, the Transfiguration and the Festival of the Cross. Included also are the seven feasts of the Virgin, i.e., the Annunciation of the Virgin, the Flailing of Mart 7 at our Lord’s birth, our Lady of the Sowing, our Lady of the Harvest, the festival of the first church named after the Virgin, the Nativity of the Virgin Mary, her Entrance into the Temple and her Assumption.

 

These are followed by the feasts of the Apostles, saints and male and female martyrs, who are: Mar Addai the Apostle; Mar Abhai the martyr; Mar Sergius and Mar Bacchus; the Maccabees; the martyr Shmuni (Salumi) and her sons, Mar Asya and Mar Isaiah the ascetics; Mar Jacob the Persian martyr who was cut to pieces; Mar Jacob of Sarug; Barbara the martyr; Mar Zokhe (Nicolas), bishop of Myra in Greece; Mar Bahnam, his sister Sarah and his forty martyr companions; Mar Gabriel, bishop of Qartmin; Mar Samuel and Mar Simon, the ascetics; the Infants of Bethlehem and John the Baptist; Mar Stephen, the protomartyr and head of the deacons; Mar Antonius; Barsoum and Aaron the ascetics; Mar Severus of Antioch; Mar Ephraim, the doctor of the church; Theodorus, the martyr of Ephchacta; Mar Habib, the deacon martyr; Abgar, the King of Edessa; the Elevation of the Cross; the forty Martyrs of Sebaste (Sivas); Mar George the martyr; St. John the Evangelist; Mar Jacob of Nisibin; Mar Awtel the ascetic; Saints Peter and Paul, the chief Apostles; the Twelve Apostles and St. Thomas the Apostle; Anba Karas the ascetic; Mar Quryaqos and his mother Yulitti and their companions; the martyrs, the ascetic Mar Malke, Mar Julian, Mar Matthew and Mar Moses the Abyssinian; Cosmas and Demyan the martyrs; the prophet Elijah and Mar Zayna the martyr, bishop of Baremman; Mar Ahudemeh, metropolitan of the East; the Golden Friday, in commemoration of the miracles of the Apostles Peter and Paul; Daniel the ascetic; John Bar Nagore and his martyred sister; Mar Qawma the stylite ascetic and the two ascetic brothers Mar Abraham and Mar Marun;[6] Febronia the martyr nun; Mar Simon the Stylite; the martyrs Agripas and Lubernitus and their companions; the martyr monks Shamuna and Guriyya (Gabriel); Romanus the martyr; the Egyptian ascetics; the Persian confessor Mar Dimet; Mar Abhai the ascetic bishop; the prophets; one of the saints, one of the martyrs and one of the ascetics. Needless to say, some of these saints are commemorated in their native countries or in the countries where they lived an ascetic life.[7]

 

Service Books of the Lent and Passion Week

 

The first service book contains the daily prayers of Lent, beginning from the evening of the first Sunday of Lent[8] (Bermun), known as the Sunday of Cana of Galilee to the seventh Sunday which is Palm Sunday. At present, the Lent prayers are recited at three times, in the morning, at noon and in the evening, except on Saturdays and Sundays.

The second service book contains the prayers of Passion Week, from Monday night until the ninth hour of the Great Saturday of Annunciation. It is a large book, different from other service books by virtue of its great length and its different madroshos, especially those prescribed for the two nocturnal services. On the day of Holy Thursday and the Friday of the Passion (Friday of the Crucifixion), the nocturnal prayer consists of four or five services. This service book is distinguished for its supplicatory verses, absolutely eloquent and elaborate, usually chanted with touching tunes, especially the madrosho sung in the tune Qum Phawlos, composed by Jacob of Edessa. Similar songs of passion also came from the pen of this same erudite man.

During Lent, according to the Eastern rite and after each service in Passion Week, a discourse or homily by either St. Ephraim, Jacob of Sarug, or Chrysostom is delivered. These homilies of Chrysostom are undoubtedly translated from a collection of homilies of the fathers of the church. The consecration of the Holy Chrism also contains an eloquent song by Lazarus Bar Sobto, metropolitan of Baghdad; however, the recitation of this song was supererogatory.[9] This rite also includes a medium-sized book containing eight services of the Christmas fasting, known to Easterners as the subbara, i.e., the Annunciation of the Nativity of the Lord Christ. These services are usually repeated three times. We have found three copies of these services; one in the Church of the Forty 7 Martyrs in Mardin, where they were used for a long time around 1700, the second in Jerusalem (transcribed in 1675) and the third in the Monastery of St. Elijah at the village of Hbob in Tur ‘Abdin.

 

Source: Barsoum, Ignatius Aphram. The Scattered Pearls: A History of Syriac Literature and Sciences. Translated by Matti Moosa. 2nd revised. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias Press, 2003, 71-77.

 

[1] Hewore, the Week of White (Whitsunday), extends from Easter Sunday to the New or Low Sunday. It was called the Week of the White for historical considerations, dating back to the early Christian church. According to an old practice of the church, the neophytes intending to embrace Christianity usually went through a period of preparation and meditation, after which they were baptized on the Thursday of Passion Week (the Thursday of the Passover) and anointed with holy oil shortly after the consecration of the holy Chrism, which took place on the same day. During the whole week following the Sunday of Easter, the neophytes received the holy Eucharist daily while attired in white garments. Hence, the name “The Week of the white.” (tr.)

[2] Jacob of Bartelli, The Book of Treasures, part 2, chapter 39.

[3] Hudhro, a Syriac word meaning circle or course. In this context, it means the books which contain the whole services for Sundays, feasts and fasts for the circle or the course of the whole year, (tr.)

[4] Basilica is an anthem sung when Christian kings or emperors are present at the service. See Payne-Smith, Syriac-English Dictionary (Oxford, 1903), 48. (tr.)

[5] See the Beth Gazo in Diyarbakir transcribed by Patriarch Pilate in 1560 when he was still a monk. It is now in the possession of Deacon Tuma.

[6] On the first Sunday of September.

[7] The Christian feasts are of two kinds: the first are those in which attending worship and abstaining from work are required. This kind is specifically restricted to well-known major feasts. The other kind is the commemoration, dukhrono, in which attending the service is required, but one need not abstain from work. Most of the saints’ feasts are of this class.

[8] The beginning of Lent is marked by the vespers observance of the evening of the first Sunday. (tr.)

[9] The service book of the Tahira [the Virgin Mary] Church in Mosul completed in 1301 and of the Church of Mar Sargis in Qaraqosh. [The reason the writer inserted this statement about the poem of Lazarus Bar Sobto concerning the consecration of the Chrism, which might seem irrelevant to the subject, is because the Chrism is usually consecrated on Thursday of Passion Week according to the tradition of the Syrian Church. (tr.)

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